D’Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University - Boston, MA, USA
Institutions are at a watershed regarding the means that they use to provide financial and insurance services to enterprises and consumers. FinTech, technology solutions and startups that have disrupted and/or improved the way finance, banking and insurance industries do business, has become one of the largest growth industries in the worlds of finance and technology. Blockchain has gained great attention, investment, and development within FinTech because it addresses two of the riskiest aspects of life and business on the Internet: transactions and trust. There are exciting career and advancement opportunities for business and technology students, faculty, and universities to equip the next generation of FinTech architects and innovators. Recently, some universities have begun to develop programs, courses, and groups to support FinTech innovation and education. In this paper, we review FinTech and Blockchain. We conclude by reviewing some of the approaches used by universities to teach FinTech and Blockchain.
Keywords: FinTech, Blockchain, Bitcoin, transactional ownership and security, mining, data synchronization
Sustainability and Business Model Innovation at the Bottom of the Pyramid: A Graduate Business Project
Shahram Taj, Florida Polytechnic University, Florida, USA
Beena George, University of St. Thomas, Texas, USA
Priya Nath, University of Houston, Texas, USA
Adeyinka Adenrele, Independent Consultant, Michigan, USA
This study proposes a workable approach in the business curriculum to prepare business students to have a global perspective and act creatively and innovatively to develop sustainable solutions for the business community. A course project was developed to educate MBA students about multifunctional, multidisciplinary perspectives of sustainability, innovation, and emerging markets. Teams of students incorporated entrepreneurial and innovate skills to identify and provide services and products for consumers and business partners at the bottom of the pyramid (BOP).
Keywords: business education, business modeling innovation, sustainable operations, bottom of pyramid
The Determinants of Student Performance in a University Marketing Class
James C. Brau, PhD, CFA, Department of Finance, Brigham Young University (BYU)
Rebekah Inez Brau, Masters Student, Department of Instructional Psychology, BYU
Stephen R. Owen, PhD Student, Department of Finance, Pennsylvania State University
Michael J. Swenson, PhD, Department of Marketing and Supply Chain, BYU
At a large private university, 835 undergraduate students completed a 110-question survey pertaining to an introduction to marketing class. The explanatory factors included are chosen to cover those studied in past literature as well as new pedagogical innovation variables. To test the determinants of student achievement we perform univariate and multivariate analyses to include quantile regressions on the 10th and 90th percentiles. The primary research objective is to provide students and instructors information on components that are most significant to learning and course outcomes. Our study allows students and instructors to give focused efforts on the factors that provide the greatest marginal benefit for student learning and outcome in an introductory university marketing class.
A Comparison of Factors Affecting Student Performance and
Satisfaction in Online, Hybrid and Traditional Courses
Retha A. Price, Mississippi College - Clinton, Mississippi, USA
Tammy Y. Arthur. Mississippi College - Clinton, Mississippi, USA
Kevin P. Pauli, Mississippi College - Clinton, Mississippi, USA
While numerous studies have contrasted the outcomes between online and traditional class formats, few have examined the effectiveness of the hybrid delivery method in business education settings. This paper presents and tests a model for analyzing factors affecting student performance and satisfaction with instructional format across three delivery methods. Specifically, the paper hypothesizes that opportunities for greater participant interaction, course clarity, and learner control may be distinct advantages of hybrid courses leading to greater student satisfaction and performance.
Keywords: hybrid, online, delivery mode, student satisfaction and performance
A Preliminary Study of Changes in Online Graduate Business
Student Perceptions Over a Course
Lynn A. Fish, Canisius College, NY, USA
Prior research indicates that as students experience more online courses, their perceptions of the online environment compared to the face-to-face learning environment change. This study evaluates the perceptual changes for graduate students over a single course. Over the semester, graduate student perceptions with respect to motivation, difficulty and cheating changed, while student perceptions of self-directed preference, independence, time and cost investment, difficulty, schedule flexibility, happiness and appropriateness of online education did not. In general, differences in perceptions between novice and more experienced learners did not exist. These results have implications for both instructors and administrators.
Keywords: Student perceptions, online, graduate students
Developing the Personal Ethics Code:
A Key Element of an Effective Business Ethics Course
Cynthia M. Orms, JD, MEd, Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA, USA
Since the early 1990’s when corporate misdeeds became the norm versus the exception, the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), along with its member schools, have struggled with the best way to produce ethical business school graduates - both at the undergraduate and graduate level. The AACSB standards specifically avoid ‘‘particular courses or treatments.’’ Instead, the language of the AACSB states that ‘‘schools should assume great flexibility in fashioning curricula to meet their missions and to fit with the specific circumstances of particular programs,’’ and each school is free to determine how to best integrate teaching business ethics to ‘‘meet the needs of the mission of the school and the learning goals for each degree program.’’ (2012a, b: Ethics/Sustainability Resource Center). Introduced in the paper is a project titled ”Personal Ethics Code” which serves to assist students to understand their own values systems, to achieve self-awareness about decision making, and ascertain their ethical priorities, thus, allowing them to become skilled ethical decision makers.
Keywords: business ethics; ethics education; ethics codes
The Use of Formal Discussant Teams to Enhance Classroom Discussion of Assigned Case Studies
Thomas J. Liesz, University of Nevada – Reno, Nevada, USA
Kathy L. Pettit-O'Malley, University of Idaho, Idaho, USA
Problem-based learning, which includes the use of cases, simulations, and games in the classroom, has long been considered a useful and effective technique. According to McKeachie (2002), “problem-based education is based upon assumptions that human beings evolved as individuals who are motivated to solve problems, and that problem solvers will seek and learn whatever knowledge is needed for successful problem solving.” However, a critical key to the success of problem-based learning is student participation. As educators, we know that the culture and make-up of each of our classes can vary widely and, thus, while there might be rich and informative discussions in one class, the next class might be quite the opposite and the instructor literally has to “pull teeth” to engender much discussion at all.
Reasons why students might choose not to participate include, but are not limited to, fear of criticism or of looking stupid, habits of passivity in the classroom, being unprepared, and failure to see the value of discussion. In the Problems in Managerial Finance course (a case-based class) one of the authors has been experimenting with the use of official “discussant” teams (analogous to the use of discussants at professional meetings) to enhance and ensure valuable discussion for all cases.
Keywords: problem-based learning, class discussion, case studies, discussant teams
The Truth about Lying: What Should We Teach About Lying and Deception in Negotiations: An Experiential Approach1
Edward G. Wertheim, D’Amore-McKim School of Business, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
The teaching of negotiations poses a particular dilemma for business schools in the area of ethics. It is normally accepted that negotiations often involve deception if not outright lying. Yet such behavior in other aspects of business activities is appropriately condemned. While fraud is illegal in all aspects of business including negotiation, ethical standards we might ideally like our businesses to adhere to are unrealistic in the area of negotiations. This paper suggests that business schools would do well to confront this dilemma; we should convey an honest and realistic notion of the role of lying in human behavior in general and negotiations in particular. We suggest two experiential situations that effectively confront this issue by triggering the complex behaviors that occur in negotiations This allows an honest discussion of the topic which results from a visceral of lying and being lied to Furthermore, the exercises allow each student to confront his or her responses to situations in which lying may result in short-term gain as well as their responses to others in the same situation.
Keywords: negotiation, lying, truthfulness, ethics, deception, “Tragedy of the Commons”
Public Sector Negotiation: A Real World Integrative Case
Michael R. Carrell, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky, USA
Louis J. Manchise, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, Kentucky, USA
Negotiation skills have long been recognized as one of the critical “soft skills” that management and business students should develop for use in their professional careers and personal lives. The relevant skills can be taught in many business courses including principles of management, organizational behavior, and negotiation, as well as similar public administration courses. In their classic book, Getting to Yes, Roger Fisher and William Ury convincingly make the argument that the method of principled negotiation should be utilized in most integrative bargaining situations (Fischer and Ury, 1981, pp 9-14). The case presented here, The Wyatt Public School District, is an excellent one for teaching the basics of principled negotiation strategy. The nature of the case is integrative, versus distributive, because it meets the broad definition of integrative models as first identified in the seminal work A Behavioral Theory of Labour Negotiations (Walton and McKersie, 1965). The case is best approached by parties utilizing the integrative process because, like most labor contract negotiation situations, it contains all of the relevant factors; several issues to be negotiated, the possibility of mutual gains options, a sharing of information and perhaps most important – a continuing long –term relationship between the parties (Carrell and Heavrin, 2013, pp186-188).
TheWyattPublic School District case (real school district, name changed) offers several key attributes that make it ideal for classroom usage: (1) it is based on an actual case, not a fictitious one, which gives it critical “real world” student appeal; (2) it has been classroom tested and students report it increased their negotiation skills and their confidence to engage in a negotiation; (3) it includes both economic and non-economic issues which students can easily understand , evaluate, and bargain successfully due to their own educational experiences; (4) it was successfully mediated by the authors, and the actual settlement terms are available upon request to interested faculty and ; (5) the union and management teams both strongly desire to settle in negotiation and avoid final – offer arbitration, which is the next step under state law (see Carrell and Bales, pp 22-36 for discussion of the final – offer process in the public sector).
Keywords: Negotiation case, public sector, integrative bargaining
A New Career Strategies Course for
Undergraduate Business Students
Stephen E. Bear, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Teaneck, New Jersey, USA
Navigating the career landscape is becoming increasingly challenging. Career success requires our students not only to obtain their first job after graduation but also to self-manage their careers after graduation. This means that our students must develop and maintain business discipline-specific skills (accounting, finance, marketing), and career strategy skills, including how to understand and adapt to organizational culture, how to network, and how to build social capital with managers and mentors. This article presents a new course, Career Strategies, that was designed to help our students to develop the career strategy skills to successfully begin their careers after graduation. Included are the course fundamentals, including overall design, course description, learning outcomes, weekly topics, and assignments.
What Do I Do with this Flipping Classroom: Ideas for Effectively Using Class Time in a Flipped Course
Thomas Tiahrt, University of South Dakota, South Dakota, USA
Jason C. Porter, University of South Dakota, South Dakota, USA
Flipping the classroom is an increasingly popular teaching style, but converting a class to a flipped format can be challenging. Apart from creating or finding the external resources that will take the place of traditional lectures, instructors must also find ways to use classroom time. We describe ideas and suggestions for effectively using class time to improve students learning.
Using Media Clips with the Visual/Virtual Generation:
We are Doing it Backwards
Craig Poulenez Donovan, Kean University – Union, New Jersey, USA
A large body of research shows that today’s visual/virtual graduate and undergraduate higher education students grasp class concepts best by relating them to visual sources such as TV shows, movies, YouTube and other media and media clips. The traditional college classroom approach, when incorporating media and media clips, positions the instructor as the active participant who finds, selects and presents clips as part of the course experience. The author follows an alternative methodology which has the students taking the active role - selecting the course related topic, finding the appropriate media clip, and presenting same to their classmates. This technique was compared across graduate and undergraduate college classes, and as an individual learning versus a group learning assignment, using business, government and non-profit courses and materials: the result - a clear preference for student selected media clips – led to improved student awareness and understanding of course concepts.
Integrate Video-Based Lectures into Online Intermediate Accounting II Course Learning
Lei Wen, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, USA
Student engagement is very crucial to the learning effectiveness no matter if it is an online or traditional in-classroom face-to-face teaching delivery method. By integrating video-based lectures into an online Intermediate Accounting II course learning, the instructor could make a difficult and challenging advanced accounting course a little bit easier for students to understand. This paper makes a contribution to accounting education literature by discussing the effectiveness of video-based lectures into the online advanced accounting course learning.
Erin B. McLaughlin, Nova Southeastern University, FL, USA
Joshua J. Daspit, Mississippi State University, USA
This paper aims to discuss a best practices exercise for facilitating team projects in the online classroom and enhancing the internal environment of the team-building process. The implications are particularly valuable to enhancing the effectiveness of team-based projects. The paper includes a brief overview of the significance of using team-based projects in the classroom, a description of the exercise, and a discussion of the experiences from professors currently using the activity.
Team projects, Team effectiveness, Online education, Online classroom, Team building process, Internal team environment, Shared leadership, Cohesion, Virtual team
Employer Assessment of Information Systems Internships Based upon Student Perception of the Employer’s Support
George Garman, Metropolitan State University of Denver - Denver, Colorado, USA
This paper presents an analysis of survey responses resulting from a questionnaire submitted by employers of student interns and another questionnaire submitted by the student interns. The employer survey contains fourteen questions rating the interns on a ten point psychometric scale while the student survey contains five questions rating the employers’ support of the internship on a five point psychometric scale. Employer and student surveys are completed independently of one another so that employers don’t know the ratings of their interns and the interns don’t know the ratings of their employers. A Pearson correlation matrix provides strong evidence of positive and significant associations among employer survey responses and student survey responses. One-way between subjects ANOVA calculations are generated to compare the effects of the fourteen individual employer responses on the five responses contained in the student survey rating the students’ perceptions of employer support.
Keywords: internships, survey analysis, ANOVA
Experimenting with Course Design and
Discipline Integration in an Applied Environment
Dr. Paul M. Lane, Seidman College of Business, Grand Valley State University, MI, USA
Dr. John P. Farris, Padnos College of Engineering and Computing, Grand Valley State University, MI, USA
Many faculty members have thought about a truly interdisciplinary applied class. This is the case of a dream that came true across two universities, six colleges, three faculty members, and one corporate business partner. Here was the opportunity to design a course with interdisciplinary faculty and applied mentors from the business partner working together. It is a chance to see if a course design can really help with interdisciplinary thinking, applicability, and relevance while engaging the community. It offered the chance for experimental program integration. The program has been run once and some of the results are outlined below in the paper. Many dream of innovating in education, but few get the chance offered to these participants.
Keywords: business partner, course design, innovative program, program integrations, application, interdisciplinary, community engagement, relevancy
Teaching Microsoft Project in the Project Management Classroom:
The Dream Home Project Exercise
Matthew Valle, Elon University, North Carolina USA
Danny Lanier, Jr., Elon University, North Carolina USA
One of the learning outcomes associated with our course in project management relates to the development of knowledge and skills in the use of technical tools (e.g., software) for project work. As such, we require that our students learn and use Microsoft Project Professional® to plan, schedule and control a simulated project. We developed this project exercise for use as an in-class, instructor-directed learning activity or as a self-directed activity for use in combination with an online video learning platform (e.g., Lynda.com). When used as a framework for discussing project scope, schedule and cost, a simulated “dream home” build allows students to plan, schedule, budget and control a project that can be easily envisioned and understood, yet is customizable to suit individual course and instructor learning outcomes.
Keywords: project management tools, Microsoft Project Professional®, project planning and control; experiential exercise
Teaching By Design Using a Question Template
To Transform Student Writing
James Swenson, Ph.D.
Paseka School of Business, Minnesota State University Moorhead, Moorhead, MN 56563
The purpose of this article is to suggest teacher’s use design thinking to create question-based assignments to transform student writing.
The problem is that it is difficult to teach someone something they think they already know. Students have learned one mindset, one normal path for writing papers and when faced with a new method challenging them to try a new and different path they are resistant.
My method for breaking through this resistance was to create a question-based template that focused on teaching a method best for creativity. The template was based on three different stages of inquiry, why, what and how. The template was designed to cue the brain to cycle through different regions of the brain. Each week a student was assigned one of twelve management topics concerning a top innovative company. The student was to use the question template to answer all the questions. The research study was 10 semesters with a total of 295 students completing 3,540 papers. The papers were reviewed, evaluated and ranked by the quality of the answers. A Goldilock’s formula using the paper’s word count was used to measure and identify the “just right” number of words used by each student to complete the assignment. The results: approximately 80 percent of the students showed little or no change in their writing, 10 percent of the class writing was greatly improved, and 10 percent of the students’ writing was deficient.
The conclusion reached was that the use of a question template was most effect for a student who was willing to put in the time and effort to research and think through all the questions to provide a holistic answer. The use of a word count as a measure was helpful in providing feedback for the purpose of communicating to the student’s suggestions and examples for improvement. The questions that sought personal feedback concerning the “walk away” message, the lessons learned, and what was cloudy or unclear about the assignment were helpful for re-designing the model.
A Comparison of Introduction to Business Courses at Top-Ranked Schools
James P. Borden, Villanova University, Villanova, PA USA
First impressions play a key role in setting the expectations for a student’s course of study. As such, the first business course that students take is critical in establishing high expectations for the students and for the college. While some schools may use Introduction to Accounting as its first course, other schools may develop a separate Introduction to Business (I2B) type of course. As the first business course, the I2B course can be used to achieve several objectives. However, little is written about the nature and content of the I2B course; this paper attempts to address that shortcoming by offering a descriptive look at a variety of I2B courses at a variety of top-ranked business schools.
Keywords: introduction to business, first year experience, freshmen, setting expectations
Turnaround Strategy: Overview of the Business and Marketing Challenges Facing the Golf Industry and Initiatives to Reinvigorate the Game
Brenda Hayden Sheets, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA
Joy Roach-Humphreys, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA
Timothy Johnston, Murray State University, Murray, KY, USA
This paper presents an overview of challenges facing the U.S. golf industry, the subsequent impact, and the implementation of programs to address the problems. The challenges addressed in the U.S. and beyond include the overbuilding of golf courses, low participation in the game, and a decreased demand for golf rounds. The impact of these challenges has resulted in discounting golf rounds, along with closures, conversions, or selling off of golf course properties. To remedy these challenges, several managerial and marketing initiatives have been implemented, including the provision of women-friendly facilities, tee positioning systems appropriate for recreational golfers, the Get Golf Ready program for beginners, and a dramatically increased marketing campaign by major golf entities. This situation analysis of the golf industry can be used to illustrate various challenges and possible responses to the decline in participation in golf, which include changing consumer preferences; managing a business in a market with declining primary demand; managing the tension between innovation and tradition in the golf industry, and others. These business challenges can be extended beyond golf to other service industries facing a changing environment.
Analysis of the best practices followed by the top business schools in the United States when teaching Business in Spanish
Virginia Cortijo, Stonehill College, Easton, MA, USA
American institutions of higher education are keenly aware that Spanish is becoming one of the world’s key business languages and they are consequently beginning to offer courses and programs that combine basic instruction in business and economics with Spanish language and communication skills in a professional context. These programs promise to help students thrive in today’s competitive global economy, and they are becoming essential to the practice of teaching and learning Business.
The objective of this paper is to explore the scope, content, and structure of “Business in Spanish” course offerings in the US. To that end, I examine a variety of courses offered by top business schools in the U.S., with an ultimate goal of identifying and learning from the best practices these institutions have followed.
The leading practices identified here fall into five categories: hands on learning, international study, diversity, flexibility, and the application of information and communication technologies. Additionally, this article explores college students’ perceptions of the benefits and professional development opportunities of second language study in developing the personal and social skills required by today’s business organizations.
Keywords: Business in Spanish, higher education institutions, second language acquisition, managerial skills.
Cost Accounting: Linking Necessary Concepts
Letitia Meier Pleis, Metropolitan State University of Denver – Colorado, USA
Cost accounting textbooks are designed to introduce a concept in each chapter. Many students approach these chapters as standalone concepts and have a difficult time understanding the big picture of cost accounting and how all the concepts work together inside a real business. One of the AICPA’s Core Competencies is linking data and transferring knowledge from one situation to another. While the focus is linking concepts from multiple business decisions, students have to start by doing this within one course. In this paper I present information on the retention of basic cost accounting concepts over the course of one semester and the ability of students to put the information together. The paper includes examples of problems that can help students see the linkages and an end of semester project that requires the use of multiple basic cost accounting concepts.
Keywords: cost accounting, linking concepts
Critical Thinking Development Through Teaching:
A Sample Project in Accounting
Anne M. A. Sergeant, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA
David M. Cannon, Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA
Critical thinking is an important component of business education. We argue for the use of students educating others outside the academic setting as a means to develop not only content knowledge but also critical thinking skills. The paper presents a project that has been used in an internal audit class as an example of students learning through teaching others. In this project, students investigate the cash controls of non-profit organizations, prepare written materials oriented toward teaching these organizations about proper cash controls, and then use these materials to teach the leaders of the organizations about effective cash management. Learning objectives include content objectives such as developing an understanding of internal controls, risk assessment, and cash management, as well as critical thinking objectives and professional development objectives. Student survey responses indicate that the project was favorably received, enhanced critical thinking, and achieved desired learning objectives. The project differs from peer teaching in that students are teaching others outside the academic environment, which creates a different environment for learning. Likewise, the project differs from traditional service-learning where students do the work rather than teach others to do the work. Both these aspects enhance student opportunities to learn critical thinking skills.
Donald Thacker, Kent State University at Stark, North Canton, Ohio, USA
Generation Z, also known as Gen Z, are individuals born in the mid-1990s to 2010. They represent the newest group of college students and soon to be sales professionals (Schawbel 2016). This group is unique in how they have developed and in turn, how live their lives. They learn, communicate, and express themselves in very different manners compared to other generational groups. Unlike other generations, they seem to be an extremely entrepreneurial generation, driven by practicality and financial success (Zimmer 2015). Because they have become accustomed to simultaneous receipt of information from multiple sources, developing Gen Z’s into sales professionals will require a variety of well-structured pedagogical methods and designed training processes.
Sales careers and other related occupations is expected to grow approximately 5% by 2024 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2015). GrowthPlay, a known researcher and developer of sales education, believes it is vital to focus on the upcoming generations (GrowthPlay 2015). It is essential that we realize that there is untapped energy and talent within these future sales professionals.
Keywords: Generation Z, Pedagogy, Professional Sales Education, Learning Theory
Teaching an Inverted “Ricardian” Argument to Help Students Solve Comparative Advantage Problems
José Castillo, University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Steve Smith, Truman State University, MO
The concept of opportunity cost is introduced in international economics (IE) as a nation’s tradeoff between producing one good versus another in the “Ricardian” model, where students come to understand an economy as varying along the input of labor only. As simple as it sounds however, the idea turns out to be one of the most difficult concepts business students face. After being taught the simple “Ricardian” argument (i.e., labor as the only variable), students are taught the more “modern” theories of international trade where countries are modeled as “endowed” with varying degrees of land, capital, and labor (in terms of skilled or unskilled laborers), that require more elaborate arguments of trade under such conditions. But, without a solid foundation in Ricardo’s “comparative advantage,” students face tough challenges in any IE course. We offer a simple way of helping students makes sense of these basic IE concepts.
Keywords: opportunity cost, comparative advantage, international economics